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Линия заданий 11, ЕГЭ по английскому языку

12643. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

Biology means the study of life and it is the science which investigates all living things. Even in the days before recorded history, people knew and passed on information about plants and animals. Prehistoric people survived by learning A___________. Farming would not have developed if they had not begun to understand that animals could produce food like milk and eggs.

The ancient Egyptians studied the life cycle of insects and understood the part that insects and pollen played in the life cycle of plants. The ancient Mesopotamians even kept animals in B___________. The ancient Greeks, too, were greatly interested in understanding the world around them. Aristotle recorded his observations of plants and animals, and his successor, Theophrastus, wrote the first books on plant life, C___________.

Modern biology really began in the 17th century. At that time, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, in Holland, invented the microscope and William Harvey, in England, described the circulation of blood. The microscope allowed scientists to discover bacteria, D___________. And new knowledge about how the human body works allowed others to find more effective ways of treating illnesses.

In the middle of the 19th century, unnoticed by anyone else, the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel, created his Laws of Inheritance, beginning the study of genetics E___________. At the same time, while travelling around the world, Charles Darwin was formulating the central principle of modern biology-natural selection as the basis of evolution.

In the 20th century, biologists began to recognize how plants and animals live and pass on their genetically coded information to the next generation. Since then, partly because of developments in computer technology, there have been great advances in the field of biology, F___________.

1) which made a very important contribution to the study of botany
2) which plants were good to eat and which could be used for medicine
3) who were very dangerous
4) that is such an important part of biology today
5) which led to an understanding of the causes of disease
6) what were the earliest zoological gardens
7) which is an area of ever-growing knowledge

Задание ЕГЭ по английскому языку

Верный ответ: 261547

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12683. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

Reality television is a genre of television programming which, it is claimed, presents unscripted dramatic or humorous situations and features ordinary people rather than professional actors. It could be described A_____________. Although the genre has existed in some form or another since the early years of television, B_____________.

Reality television covers a wide range of television programming formats, from game or quiz shows to surveillance-focused productions such as Big Brother. Critics say that the term ‘reality television’ is somewhat of a misnomer C_____________. The participants of these shows are often put in exotic locations or abnormal situations and are sometimes coached to act in certain ways by off-screen handlers, whereas the events on screen are manipulated through editing and other post-production techniques.

Part of reality television’s appeal is D_____________. Reality television also has the potential to turn its participants into national celebrities, mainly in talent and performance programmes such as Pop Idol, E_____________.

Some commentators have said that the name ‘reality television’ is an inaccurate description for several styles of programme included in the genre. In competition-based programmes such as Big Brother and The Real World, producers design the format of the show and control the day-to-day activities and the environment, F_____________. Producers specifically select the participants, and use carefully designed scenarios, challenges, events, and settings to encourage particular behaviours and conflicts.

1) that is rather popular with teenagers
2) because such shows frequently portray a modified and highly influenced form of reality
3) the current explosion of popularity dates from around 2000
4) though frequently Big Brother participants also reach some degree of celebrity
5) creating a completely fabricated world in which the competition plays out
6) as a form of artificial documentary
7) due to its ability to place ordinary people in extraordinary situations

Задание ЕГЭ по английскому языку

Верный ответ: 632745

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12723. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

Solar panels on the roof aren’t just providing clean power; they are cooling the house. Using thermal imaging, researchers determined that during the day, a building’s ceiling was 5 degrees Fahrenheit cooler under solar panels than under an exposed roof. At night, the panels help hold heat in, A___________.

As solar panels sprout on an increasing number of residential and commercial roofs, it becomes more important to consider their impact on buildings’ total energy costs. Data for the study was gathered over three days on the roof of the San Diego School of Engineering with a thermal infrared camera. The building is equipped with tilted solar panels and solar panels B___________. Some portions of the roof are not covered by panels.

The panels essentially act as roof shades. Rather than the sun beating down onto the roof, C___________, photovoltaic panels take the solar beating. Then much of the heat is removed by wind blowing between the panels and the roof. The benefits are greater if there is an open gap D___________, so tilted panels provide more cooling. Also, the more efficient the solar panels, the bigger the cooling effect. For the building researchers analyzed, the panels reduced the amount of heat reaching the roof by about 38 percent.

Although the measurements took place over a limited period of time, the team developed a model that allows them to extrapolate their findings to predict cooling effects throughout the year.

For example, in winter, the panels would keep the sun from heating up the building. But at night, they would also keep in E___________.

There are more efficient ways to passively cool buildings F___________. But, if you are considering installing solar photovoltaic, depending on your roof thermal properties, you can expect a large reduction in the amount of energy you use to cool your residence or business.

1) that are flush with the roof
2) such as reflective roof membranes
3) which causes heat to be pushed through the roof
4) where air can circulate between the building and the solar panel
5) that was not covered with panels
6) reducing heating costs in the winter
7) whatever heat accumulated inside

Задание ЕГЭ по английскому языку

Верный ответ: 613472

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12763. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

The ancient Greeks coined the term ‘atomos’, meaning the smallest possible separation of matter. In ancient times, both the Greeks and Indians had philosophised about the existence of the atom. However, it was first hypothesised scientifically by the British chemist John Dalton in the early years of the 19th century, A___________. Since then, smaller subatomic particles have been discovered and the part they play as the basic building blocks of the universe is clear. We now know that atoms are made up of differing numbers of electrons, neutrons and protons, and these too are made up of even smaller particles.

Dalton’s theory about atoms was not immediately accepted by chemists, although one reason for this was Dalton’s well-known carelessness in experimental procedures. However, we know that Dalton was correct in almost everything he said in his theory of the atom. He described an atom, even though he had never seen one, B___________. It could combine with the atoms of other chemical elements to create a compound.

Almost a century later the first subatomic particles were discovered. By the 1930s, physicists were working with new ideas C___________. In turn, these developments helped them to develop quantum mechanics.

In chemistry, the atom is the smallest part of an element D___________. The difference in the number of subatomic particles makes one atom different from another.

Subatomic particles also have another purpose. If there is the same number of electrons and protons in the atom, E___________. A difference between the two means the atom has an electrical charge. In other words, it produces electricity. This electricity means the electrons can become attracted to each other. In this way, atoms can bond together to form molecules, and when enough molecules are joined together we have matter F___________.

1) as he has no equipment
2) as a particle that cannot change its nature
3) when he suggested it was the smallest particle that could exist
4) that we can see
5) that can still be recognised
6) then it will be electronically neutral
7) which allowed them to investigate the parts of the atom in great detail

Задание ЕГЭ по английскому языку

Верный ответ: 327564

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12803. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

On the whole, Cambridge is a much quieter than Oxford, although what really sets it apart from its scholarly rival is ‘the Backs’, providing exquisite views over the backs of the old colleges. At the front, the handsome facades of these same colleges dominate the layout of the town centre, lining up along the main streets. Most of the colleges date back to the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. Many of the buildings are extraordinarily beautiful, but the most famous is King’s College, A___________. There are thirtyone university colleges in total. Each one is an independent, self-governing body, proud of its achievements and attracting a close loyalty from its students, B___________.

During the nineteenth century, the university finally lost its ancient privileges over the town, C___________. The university expanded too, with the number of students increasing dramatically. More recently, change has been much slower, D___________. The first two women’s colleges were founded in the 1870s, but it was only in 1947 that women were actually awarded degrees. In the meantime, the city and university had been acquiring a reputation as a high-tech centre of excellence. Cambridge, E___________, has always been in the vanguard of scientific research.

Cambridge is an extremely compact place, and you can walk round the centre, visiting the most interesting colleges, in an afternoon. A more thorough exploration covering more of the colleges and a leisurely afternoon on a punt will, however, take at least a couple of days. If possible you should avoid coming in high summer, F___________. Faced with such crowds, the more popular colleges have restricted their opening times and have introduced admission charges.

1) because of the development of industry
2) whose magnificent chapel is one of the greatest statements of late Gothic architecture
3) whose alumni have received no less than ninety Nobel prizes
4) amongst whom privately educated boys remain over-represented
5) particularly when it comes to equality of sexes
6) which was expanding rapidly thanks to the arrival of the railway
7) when the students are replaced by crowds of sightseers

Задание ЕГЭ по английскому языку

Верный ответ: 246537

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12843. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

When you mention the name ‘Hovercraft’ most people think of a helicopter. If someone sees one from the river bank, the term ‘airboat’ comes to their mind because most people are not quite sure A___________. Few people know of the personal sized hovercraft B___________.

A hovercraft is a vehicle, designed to travel over any smooth surface. Hovercraft are unique among all forms of transportation in their ability to travel equally well over land, ice, and water C___________. That is why they are used throughout the world as a means of specialized transport D___________. Hovercraft can be powered by one or more engines. The engine drives the fan, which is responsible for creating high pressure air. The air inflates the ‘skirt’ under the vehicle, causing it to rise above the ground.

The Hovercraft Museum, located in Hampshire, houses the world’s largest library of documents, publications, photographs and drawings on hovercraft, E___________. The museum also contains a large collection of original manufacturer’s hovercraft models including the world’s first working hovercraft model built by Christopher Cockerell.

Cockerell’s idea was to build a vehicle floating on a layer of air, F___________. To test his hypothesis, he put one smaller can inside a larger can and used a hairdryer to blow air into them. Christopher Cockerell was knighted for his achievement in 1969.

Hovercraft have now become much larger, more efficient and are in widespread use all over the world.

1) what they are looking at
2) which would reduce friction between the water and vehicle
3) all of which are available for research
4) where there is the need to travel over multiple types of surfaces
5) that are used worldwide for recreation, racing and rescue
6) so as to entertain the general public
7) because they are supported by a cushion of air

Задание ЕГЭ по английскому языку

Верный ответ: 157432

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12883. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

The world of automobiles has made some dramatic changes in the past century. Each year brings more innovative improvements in car technology A___________. However, all that brightness might make someone feel a bit curious about how it all began.

Way back in the 15th century, Leonardo Da Vinci was working diligently on designs and prototypes for transport vehicles B___________. It wasn’t until 1769 that an inventor in France built a working self-propelled vehicle. His name was Nicolas Cugnot, and the vehicle was a steam powered military tractor.

In Scotland, around 1839, Robert Anderson took a ride in his creation, C___________. Today’s modern hybrid cars use technology based upon the ideas first dreamed of almost 170 years ago!

But the legitimate title of Automobile Inventor would have to go to German inventor, Karl Friedrich Benz. It was in 1886 that he received a patent on the world’s first gasoline powered automobile, D___________.

In the United States, the first patent issued for an automobile was granted in 1789, to Oliver Evans. He performed an amazing demonstration of his vehicle in 1805, E___________. Proudly crowned the first amphibious vehicle, it never quite made it to production for the public.

It was in 1893 that Charles Edgar Duryea, and his brother Frank introduced to America the first gasoline powered car that worked the way it was supposed to. These two engineering brothers also started the first American automobile manufacturing plant.

A common belief is that Henry Ford invented the first car. However, Henry created his first car only in 1896. He had formed and lost two car manufacturing plants by 1903, F___________. His most famous contribution to the automotive industry was that he invented the first assembly line conveyer belt that revolutionized the manufacturing of automobiles.

1) which had a combustion engine and three wheels
2) when he showed the crowd that his automobile was able to travel on land, and in
3) because automotive companies are planning to do a lot of scientific research
4) when he started The Ford Motor Company
5) but, unfortunately, none ever came into being
6) the water by using a paddle wheel
7) so the future looks bright for both car buyers and car manufacturers
8) which he called the Electric Carriage

Задание ЕГЭ по английскому языку

Верный ответ: 567124

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12923. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

Hogmanay is a Scottish holiday that celebrates the New Year. Observed on December 31, festivities typically spill over into the first couple of days of January. In fact, there’s a tradition known as ‘first-footing’, A___________. Of course, the guest must be dark-haired and preferably male. Redheads and women aren’t nearly as lucky! This tradition stems from the time when a red- or blonde-haired stranger was probably an invading Norseman. Gifts are given to guests, and one of the popular food items on the Hogmanay menu is the black bun, B___________.

In addition to national observance, many local areas have their own customs C___________. In the town of Burghead, Moray, an ancient tradition called ‘burning the clavie’ takes place each year on January, 11. The clavie is a big bonfire, fuelled primarily by split casks. One of these is joined back together with a big nail, filled with flammable material, and lit on fire. Flaming, it’s carried around the village and up to a Roman altar known to residents as the Douro. The bonfire is built around the clavie. When the burnt clavie crumbles, D___________.

In Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, the locals make giant balls of tar, paper and chicken wire. These are attached to several feet of chain or wire, and then set on fire. A designated ‘swinger’ whirls the ball around his head and walks through the village streets to the local harbor. At the end of the festival, any balls still on fire are cast into the water, E___________!

The town of Biggar, Lanarkshire, celebrates with a big holiday bonfire. In the early 1940s, one or two locals complained about the size of the fire, and celebration organizers agreed to have a smaller fire. This was erected as promised, but before it was lit, the local traditionalists trucked in cartload after cartload of coal and wood, making a giant pyre, F___________!

The Presbyterian church disapproved of Hogmanay in the past, but the holiday still enjoys a great deal of popularity.

1) which then burned for a whopping five days before running out of fuel
2) which is quite an impressive sight in the dark
3) where they are able to follow national traditions
4) the locals each grab a lit piece to kindle a fire in their own hearth
5) in which the first person to cross a home’s threshold brings the residents good luck for the coming year
6) when it comes to celebrating Hogmanay
7) which is a really rich fruitcake

Задание ЕГЭ по английскому языку

Верный ответ: 576421

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12963. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

Walls and wall building have played a very important role in Chinese culture. From the Neolithic period to the Communist Revolution, walls were an essential part of any vil lage or town. Not only towns and villages but the houses and the temples within them were somehow walled, and the houses also had no windows overlooking the street, A___________. The name for ‘city’ in Chinese (ch’eng) means ‘a wall’, and over these walled cities, villages, houses and temples presides the god of walls and mounts, whose duties were, and still are, B___________. Thus a great and extremely laborious task such as constructing a wall, C___________, must not have seemed such an absurdity.

However, it is indeed a common mistake to perceive the Great Wall as a single architectural structure, and it would also be erroneous to assume that it was built during a single dynasty. The building of the wall spanned various dynasties, and each of these dynasties somehow contributed to the construction of the Great Wall, D___________.

The role that the Great Wall played in the growth of Chinese economy was an important one. Throughout the centuries many settlements were established along the new border. The garrison troops were instructed to reclaim wasteland and to plant crops on it, roads and canals were built, E___________. All these undertakings greatly helped to increase the country’s trade and cultural exchange with many remote areas. Builders, garrisons, artisans, farmers and peasants left behind a trail of objects, including inscribed tablets, household articles, and written work, which have become extremely valuable archaeological evidence to the study of defence institutions of the Great Wall and the everyday life of those people F___________.

1) thus giving the feeling of wandering around a huge maze
2) which constructed the Great Wall
3) whose foundations had been laid many centuries ago
4) which was supposed to run throughout the country
5) to protect and be responsible for the welfare of the inhabitants
6) to mention just a few of the works carried out
7) who lived and died along the wall

Задание ЕГЭ по английскому языку

Верный ответ: 154367

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13003. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя. Занесите цифру, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

To design spacesuits, vehicles and habitats with enough shielding to keep astronauts safe, scientists need to know A___________. They can estimate this radiation dose using computer models, but a computer model and real-life can be two wildly different things. Until now, researchers weren’t sure B___________.

That’s where the Phantom Torso comes in. He’s an armless, legless, human-shaped mannequin C___________. Scientists call him Matroshka, and like his NASA counterpart Fred, this mannequin is an intrepid space traveller.

Matroshka’s plastic body is loaded with over 400 dosimeter sensors D___________. The sensors are placed in the location of vital human organs. All the data collected is being used by scientists to verify the accuracy of computer models used to predict the safety of space missions for human astronauts.

The Phantom Torso has become a regular sight on the International Space Station over the last four months but now the limbless mummy-like humanoid is back home again. The Phantom Torso has provided the real-world test needed to prove E___________. They’re accurate to within ten percent of the measured dose. That means these models can be used to plan NASA’s return to the Moon or even a trip to Mars.

Lessons learned from Fred and Matroshka have major implications for NASA’s plans to set up a manned outpost on the Moon and eventually to send people to Mars. Protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation will be a critical challenge for these extended missions.

Now that the Phantom Torso has spent four months on the International Space Station, scientists are learning about the space radiation F___________. The results obtained from this experiment could help in the development of countermeasures to the effect of cosmic radiation experienced by astronauts.

1) which collect data from galactic cosmic rays and other radiation sources in space
2) whether their models accurately predicted the radiation dose astronauts experience in space
3) that Matroshka endured
4) how much radiation astronauts actually absorb
5) what to do with him
6) that looks like he’s wrapped in a mummy’s bandages
7) that the models used by scientists are essentially correct

Задание ЕГЭ по английскому языку

Верный ответ: 426173

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